5)WASTE MOVEMENT IN OPERATIONS: They correspond to useless operations on the manufacturing lines or machines. Therefore, any unnecessary movement must be eliminated.It is known that productivity is inversely proportional to the time in which actions are performed that add value to the product. Therefore, the lower this time, the greater the productive capacity.
The main consequences of unnecessary movement in operations are: oversizing manpower, increased cycle times, imbalance of production lines, high operator fatigue and low productivity.
Causes of unnecessary movement:
- Execution of the operations in a disoriented way;
- Inadequate layout;
- Mistaken analysis of movements and consequently poor distribution of tasks in manufacturing lines;
- Absence of parameters and the standard time for the operator to compare the pace of work;
- Inadequate development of racks of components or materials used in production.
In order to avoid these waste the following actions can be taken:
- Draw up a work script so that it occurs in a sequenced way;
- Facilitate the flow of parts and improve the layout;
- Define the standard cycle time and the maximum time for each activity;
- Eliminate actions that do not add value to the product;
- To adapt the workstations to the norms of the ergonomics.
6)WASTE FOR MANUFACTURE OF DEFECTIVE PRODUCTS: They are waste resulting from the manufacture of products that do not meet the minimum specifications of quality and design generating rework, scrap or suspect items. The manufacture of defective products has negative consequences, such as: waste of material, handling and storage of defective products, rework and reinspections, productive manpower time, non-productive equipment time and low product quality.
The main causes of losses due to defects are:
- Low reliability of equipment;
- Low qualification of operators in carrying out inspections of processes and products;
- High variability of processes and raw materials; Main measures to eliminate defective products:
- Implement statistical quality control;
- Implement fail-safe systems;
- Conduct inspection and testing of raw materials prior to release to the process;
- Keep the operator always up to date through recycling and courses;
- Inspect machines and equipment continuously;
- Continuous monitoring of process and product characteristics, self-control performed by the operator and in charge of production.
7)WASTE OF STOCK: stock waste represents high cost, stock control and management problems, large occupied areas, and large distances between processes. The greatest difficulty in combating them is due to the apparent “advantage” they provide by minimizing synchrony problems between processes.In view of this, they mask numerous quality problems and organizational anomalies. The best way to combat them is to eliminate the reasons why it is necessary to maintain them.
The main causes of the waste of stock are:
- Poor sizing of batches and high tool change times;
- Imbalance between production and demand;
- Overproduction wastes generating stocks;
- Stocks to compensate for waiting.
Actions to avoid this type of loss:
- Improve layout;
- Improve lead time;
- Produce in small batches;
- Perform synchronization and balancing of workflows;
- Improve setup and increase machine reliability.
8)WASTE OF EMPLOYEE KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS: Potential dammed or non-use of talent in the organization can be sources of waste. When the company does not take advantage of the ideas or places a qualified professional to perform a function short of the skills it possesses, in essence, it is underutilizing the worker’s capacity. While the waste of a machine or the defect of a batch is more noticeable, the lack of use of so-called intellectual capital is not always noticed by organizations. In this case, competency management can be an effective way for companies to adequately allocate manpower to the organization’s strategic objectives.
Actions to avoid this type of loss:
- Train and motivate employees;
- Encourage and reward improvement groups;
- “Always treat your employees exactly as you want them to treat your customers and your company”.
Edson Miranda da Silva – Manager of Quality, Productivity and Sustainability.